Buffalo Bulletin Vol.27 No.1 (March 2008) p. 148-149

 

 

EMERGENCY INDUCTION OF PARTURITION IN BUFFALOES

 

 

S.P. Shukla, Anand Pandey and S.P. Nema

 

Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology & Obstetrics,

College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry,

MHOW 453 446, (M.P.) India.

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

            In the present study, 17 buffaloes were treated for emergency induction of parturition with Dexamethasone alone or in combination with PGF2 alpha. It was concluded that Dexamethasone alone or in combination with PGF2 Alpha can be used successfully for emergency induction of parturition in buffaloes although there was a higher incidence of dystocia, retention of foetal membranes and mortality of calves, which needs to be minimized by careful follow up, critical observation and prompt assistance. Further therapeutic trials are needed to minimize the incidence of retention of foetal membranes and dystocia.

 

Keywords: parturition, dexamethasone, foetal, membranes

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

            It is believed that initiating signals for hormonal changes that terminate pregnancy come from the foetus through an increased secretion of cortisol. The first report on the use of corticoids to induce premature parturition in cattle was reported by Adams (1969). The ability of synthetic corticosteroids to induce parturition in cattle has been found applicable to synchronize calving for better and convenient calving management. This not only minimizes the dystocia problem but also facilitates therapeutic termination of pregnancy for various clinical reasons. In the present investigation parturition, was induced in buffaloes using corticosteroid alone or in combination with PGF2 alpha for therapeutic termination of pregnancy for clinical reasons.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

            In the present study, emergency parturition was induced in 17 buffaloes in advanced pregnancy belonging to local farmers to avoid total loss. The therapeutic termination of pregnancy was done 5-20 days before completion of the full term of gestation. The animals were randomly divided into two groups.

            Group I consisted of six buffaloes having gestation length less than 300 days. They were treated with Dexamethasone 20 mg + PGF2 Alpha 25 mg intramuscular only once.

            Group II consisted of 11 buffaloes having gestation length more than 300 days. They were treated with dexamethasone 20 mg intramuscular once only.

            The animals were observed for the duration of parturition (hours), occurrence of dystocia (%), incidence of retention of foetal membranes (%), live calves born (%), and sex ratio of calves born. The data was analysed as per the method described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).

 

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

 

            The observations in relation to induction of parturition in buffaloes (mean + SE) is reported in the table. In the present study, emergency parturition was induced in 17 buffaloes. It was recorded that all the buffaloes (100%) calved in between 18.5 h and 67.25 h. Phogat et al. (1994) also reported that Dexamethasone successfully induced parturition in buffaloes.

            In the present study, it was recorded that the overall duration between commencement of treatment to induction of parturition was 26.58 ± 2.57 h. The present findings are in close accordance with the findings of Nakao et.al (1996) who reported the average interval of 31.5 h after the treatment given for induction of parturition in cattle. The duration was significantly greater (P<0.01) in Group I (Dexamethasone + PGF2 alpha) in comparison to Group II (Dexamethasone). The reason for greater duration required in Group I may be because  of lower gestation length  (less than 300 days) in the buffaloes of Group I.

            In the present study, overall incidence of dystocia after the treatment for induction of parturition was recorded to be 17.64%. The overall occurrence of dystocia was significantly higher (P<0.01) in Group I in comparison to Group II. It was recorded that the occurrence of dystocia was more common in the cases in which the foetus was born dead.

            In the present investigation, the occurrence of dystocia was much higher (17.64%) than the normal range  (3.3 percent as reported by Williams, 1943). The reason may be incomplete preparation of birth canal for parturition due to shorter gestation length in the buffaloes treated for induction of parturition). Some investigators have reported that the cows that were induced for parturition more than two weeks pre-maturely suffered a higher incidence of dystocia than normal cows; this may be due to incomplete uterine maturation coupled with malpresentation of foetus.

            It was recorded that the overall incidence of retention of foetal membranes was higher (64.70%) than the normal limits.  Peters and Poole (1992) and Kask et al. (2000) have also recorded higher incidences of retention of foetal membranes (RFM) in cows after induction of parturition with prostaglandin F2 alpha.

            Retention of foetal membranes was significantly higher in Group I in comparison with the Group II. The higher incidence of retained foetal membranes in Group I may be because of shorter gestation length resulting in improper maturation of placenta. The calf mortality in the present study was 11.77 percent, which was higher than the permissible limit. It was observed that more live foetuses were found in treatment Group II in comparison to Group I. The high incidence of calf mortality appears to be due to premature placental separation and increased frequency of uterine inertia. However, calf mortality may be reduced to some extent by careful observation and prompt assistance.

            It was concluded that Dexamethasone alone or in combination with PGF2 alpha can be used for emergency induction of parturition. With the latter treatment there were higher incidences of dystocia, retention of foetal membranes and mortality of calves which needs to be minimized by conducting various trials.

 

Table.  Observations in relation to induction of parturition in buffaloes (Mean + SE).

 

Observations

Groups

Dexamethasone +
PGF2 alpha

(Group I, N-6)

Dexamethasone

(Group II ,n=11)

Both groups

(n=17)

Duration of parturition (h)

37.83 ± 2.61**

20.45± 2.06

26.58±2.57

Occurrence of dystocia (%)

50.00**

-

17.64

Occurrence of retention of placenta

100**

45.45

64.70

Live calves (%)

66.66

100

88.23**

Sex ratio

3:3

3:8

6:1

F : M

1:1

1:2.66

1:1.83

 

                                                 ** Significant  (P<0.01)

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Adams, W.M. 1969. The elective induction of labour and parturition in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass., 154: 261-265.

Kask, K., H. Gustafsan, , A. Gunnarsson and H. Kindahl. 2000. Induction of parturition with PGF2 alpha  as a possible model to study impaired reproductive performance in the dairy cow. Anim.Reprod.Sci., 59(3-4): 129-139.

Peters, A.R. and D.A. Poole. 1992. Induction of parturition in dairy cows with dexamethasone. Vet.Rec., 131: 576-578.

Phogat, J.B., N.S. Bugalia and S.L. Gupta. 1994. Clinical efficacy of dexamethasone  in prolonged gestation and valethamate bromide in dystocia due to in sufficient dilation of cervix in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Indian  Vet. J., 71(11): 1085-1087.

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. 1994. Statistical Methods, 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA.

Williams, W.L. 1943. Veterinary Obstetrics. 4th ed. Miss Louella Williams, Uplant Rd., Ithaca, NY.